To reconstruct my maternal great grandfather’s family tree, I relied heavily on secondary and tertiary sources. In this case, a transcription by Father Mallada of the 1897 census, a transcription of the 1920 census conducted by the Church, and an index card with family names and dates that was maintained by Dr. Jane H. Underwood.

04 JHUIndexCard


Not one of these single transcriptive documents seems to lists their entire family, but Jane Underwood’s index card seems to be the most complete. Between those documents, I have concluded that Juan Ignacio dela Cruz, manggåfan Yai/Paeng, and Maria Cruz dela Cruz, manggåfan Mafongfong, had either 9 or 10 children.

  1. Vicenta, born about 1890. The 1920 church census is the only document of the three that indicates she might have been either their eldest daughter or quite possibly the sister of Maria Cruz Manibusan, my great grandmother. Vicenta is more than likely to be their daughter, because when I transcriber her recorded name , Vicenta Cruz Manibusan using today's naming convention, I am recording her name as Vicenta Manibusan Cruz, which aligns with the rest of Juan and Maria's children's names.

*All the children hereunder are recorded in Jane Underwood’s index card.

  1. Dolores, born about 1894. She is recorded as their daughter in the 1897 census.
  2. Maria, born about 1895. She too is recorded as their daughter in the 1897 census.
  3. Rosa, born 1896. In the 1920 church census she is listed with her husband Daniel Perez and children, but also under the same household as Juan and Maria. It’s not clear why she was not recorded in the 1897 census.
  4. Ignacio, born 1900. He is maternal grandfather.
  5. Josefa, born 1904.
  6. Ana, born and died in 1906 as an infant. Underwood records her birthday as February 18, 1906 and date of death October 31, 1906.
  7. Paterno, born 1907.
  8. Ramon, born and died in 1909 as an infant. Underwood recorded his birthday as June 21, 1907 and date of death July 29, 1909.
  9. Pedro, born and died as a toddler. Underwood recorded his birthday as October 17, 1910 and date of death April 4, 1912.

Because there is a 23-year gap between census periods, it is very difficult to bridge family information between 1897 and 1920.  I would have never known about my young uncles Ramon and Pedro, had it not been for Underwood’s work.

I noted that in this 1897 census page, my great-great grandparents (Vicente Cruz dela Cruz and Maria Cruz Ignacio) and my great-great-great grandmother Rita dela Cruz is listed below by great grandparent’s family.

My research and work documenting all this information is now a quaternary source of information. OMG 4x.


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